Dexpanthenol safety and efficacy in treatment of hair loss.
Hair is far more complex than it appears on the surface. We all know that it is not only plays a vital role in the appearance of both men and women, but it also helps to transmit sensory information as well as regulate body temperature. Hair has two distinct structures – first, the hair follicle, which resides in the skin, and second, the hair shaft, which is what is visible above the scalp.
The normal hair growth cycle:
The hair follicle goes through a series of continuous growth and rest phases called the hair growth cycle. The hair growth cycle consists of three main phases: the growth phase, called the anagen phase, the retardation phase, called the catagen phase, and the resting phase, called the telogen phase. The anagen cells have a high rate of active mitosis. The cells in the hair root divide rapidly, forming new hairs that rush through and eventually exit the follicle. It is the longest stage, lasting about 3 to 5 years for head hair, although in some people this stage may last for 7 years or more, 85 percent of the hair is in this stage.
Hair on the human scalp grows about 1.3 cm per month. When hair growth stops, a stage of catagen occurs, which results in a delay in splitting. The catagen phase is a transitional phase that lasts about 10 days, during which the blood supply to the hair is cut off and its growth stops, and the outer covering of the hair root shrinks and adheres to the root, thus forming what is known as club hair, only about 1-5 percent of the head hair is in the catagen phase at any time. Then in the telogen phase, the hair remains in the follicle for a period of 2-3 months, and at the end of this period the hair begins to fall out to form new hair in the follicle and re-growth stages again, an estimated 10-15 percent of scalp hair is at rest at any time.
Fortunately, the anagen phase varies with different hair types. For example, the anagen phase of eyebrow hair, eyelashes, and pubic hair is much shorter than the anagen phase of scalp hair. Hair in both sexes responds to the influence of sex hormones (androgen hormones), which transform thin, light-colored vellus hair into thick, long hair called definitive hair in the areas of the scalp, beard, ears, chest, pubic area, and underarms during puberty. In the case of hormonal imbalance, high androgen levels transform the terminally thicker hair into the thinner vellus hair at the front of the scalp which leads to hereditary hair loss and the widening of the mid-hairline for both sexes.
The effect of Dexpanthenol on hair:
Dexpanthenol the active ingredient in Be long hair tonic spray, is vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) and is widely used in nutritional supplements, cosmetics and topical creams for its anti-inflammatory, regeneration-stimulating and moisturizing effects. Due to these skin-improving properties, Dexpanthenol is widely used to relieve dermatitis, symptoms of diaper rash, sunburn, and facilitate wound repair. It has long been used in hair care products to combat hair loss. Human Dermal Papilla Cells (hDPC) and human Outer Root Sheath Cells (hORSC) are the most important parts of the hair follicle. Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray) improved cell viability by increasing the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in dermal papilla cells. For apoptosis (Caspase 3/caspase 9) and cell senescence (p21/p16) markers, they were significantly reduced by Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray). Also, factors that stimulate and prolong the anagen phase (such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP); B-catenin; versican) were also increased by Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray). On the other hand, Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray) reduced the gene expression of transforming growth factor (TGF B1), which stimulates hair follicles to enter the catagen phase. It also increased the gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important factor in peripheral vascular activation; Its receptor, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), was upregulated and increased by treatment with Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray). In conclusion, the hair growth stimulating activity of Dexpanthenol is by increasing cell vitality and activity, suppressing signs of apoptosis and aging and prolonging the anagen phase of hair follicles.
Due to the clinical importance of the anagen phase, abnormal termination of the anagen phase leads to progressive hair thinning. Therefore, extension of the anagen phase has long been believed to be an essential strategy in the treatment of hair loss. Dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and outer root sheath cells (hORSCs) are two special cells of hair follicles, which play an important role in the formation and regeneration of hair follicles. Studies have indicated that the anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative powers of dermal papilla cells are the first evidence for their alopecia properties.
In particular, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in dermal papilla cells is an important
factor for the development of the hair follicle cycle by stimulating the formation of new hair follicles and the transition from the telogen to the anagen phase. Dermal papillary growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), stimulate keratinocytes to reproduce and differentiate in the hair shaft during growth.
The transition between the three hair cycles is also primarily controlled by dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Secreted proteins such as transforming growth factor (TGF β1), (TGF β2) and dickkopf1 (DKK1) are known to stimulate the transition from telogen to anagen phase. On the other hand, the outer root sheath (ORS) cells act as a conductor between the stem cells and the dermal cells of the anagen hair follicle. Signals of the telogen phase transition to the anagen phase, and cells in the outer root sheath begin to multiply and differentiate to activate hair follicle dermal papilla cells to form new hair. Several clinical studies reported that topical application of Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray) reduced hair loss in women and androgenic alopecia in men.
The effect of Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray) on the hair structure:
- Dexpanthenol stimulated the growth of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by 30 percent.
- Dexpanthenol lowers the markers of apoptosis and senescence in dermal papillary cells (hDPCs). Caspase 3 and caspase 9, which trigger apoptosis, are considered to be anagen termination markers. The process of apoptosis is initiated by caspase 9 secretion and terminated by caspase 3. The gene expression of the apoptotic markers, caspase 3 and caspase 9, was significantly reduced after using Dexpanthenol by 20% percent compared to no treatment. Besides the anti-apoptotic effects of Dexpanthenol, the markers of cell senescence, p21 and p16, were also significantly reduced by 60% and 50% percent. In addition, the gene translation levels of p21, p16 and caspase 3 were significantly decreased by 60%, 40%, and 50% percent, respectively, after application of Dexpanthenol.
- Dexpanthenol increases anagen markers in dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and β-catenin. The activity of alkaline phosphatase is a sign of promoting hair growth in dermal papilla cells. After treatment with Dexpanthenol, it was found that the number and intensity of alkaline phosphatase gene expression increased significantly by 40 %. Histochemical analyzes revealed that both alkaline phosphatase and B-catenin were highly expressed in the early to mid-anagen phase of hair follicles.
- Dexpanthenol reduced transforming growth factor (TGFβ1) gene expression in dermal papilla cells hDPCs by 30%. TGF-β1 stimulates hair follicles to enter the regressive phase of growth (catagen phase). In hormonal alopecia, it prevents early and repeated stimulation of dermal papilla cells by androgens. Overgrowth of adjacent epithelial cells leading to the development of hormonal alopecia.
- Dexpanthenol increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression in dermal papilla cells hDPCs, VEGF plays an important role in promoting hair growth by increasing angiogenesis and stimulating mitotic processes in hair follicle. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also stimulates neighboring cells, such as outer root sheath cells, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and epidermal cells to make hair follicles fully mature and hair shaft differentiation.
- Dexpanthenol stimulated the growth of human outer root sheath cells (hORSCs) and reduced the markers of senescence. Since the proliferative capacity of hORSCs determines the anagen, catagen, or telogen phase of hair follicles, Dexpanthenol stimulates the action of hORSCs and reduces the signs of cellular senescence.
- Dexpanthenol increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) gene expression in outer root sheath cells (hORSCs) by 70%.
Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray) is suitable for all types of hair even curly hair. The use of the Be long hair tonic spray is allowed at any age and has no contraindication with any drugs. Also, safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women.
An important advantage of the Be long hair tonic spray (Dexpanthenol) is that it does not have a cumulative effect. That is, Dexpanthenol is not collected on the surface of the hair, all substance is removed from the head after washing with a mild shampoo or even simple rinsing with clean water so Dexpanthenol (Be long hair tonic spray) is safe and effective for long period of time, the hair will look much better with Be long hair tonic spray use than after expensive salon procedures.